One of the earliest methods of conveying fluids in the history of mankind was by pipe.
The earliest pipe on record was the use of bamboo for moving small quantities of water as a continues flow.
Today piping is used in almost every aspect of our lives.
A fitting is a pipe item used for changing direction, branching or attaching in a piping system. There are many different types of fittings and they are produced in all the same sizes and weights (schedules) as the pipe. Fittings are commonly segregated into three groups; Butt-weld, Socket-weld and Screwed. Only the most common will be discussed in this article.
Where pipes pass through external walls, in basement areas, a puddle flange may be required. Location which may be below the water table or in areas liable to flooding or in areas which may need to be sealed against methane gas coming from made up ground etc.